images/navbar1x4.gif  

   
Section 1

link2
link3
link4
Section 2
link1
link2
link3
link4
Section 3
k2 at the sino pakistan border



muztagata 180 kilometers from Kashgar on the way to Pakistan
   

Hello Dear visitors, in this web pages I will tell you more about Xinjiang mountains and peaks and glacier,because we can also arrange the speical tour to mountain climbing trekking tours along silk road xinjiang. there many mountains over 5000 meters .some of the peaks even 7000 meters and K2 ,the second highest peaks in the world also located in xinjiang pakistan border area. Some of the mountian area you will need to get permit to go. Please donot be hasitaed to contact us if you wan to come.! Her at the belwo is some introduction and information about this area.

Mountains, Peaks and Glaciers
Like dragons,the imposing Altai, Tianshan and Kunlun mountain ranges coil and wind, rise and fall in the northern, central and southern parts of the vast region of Xinjiang in western China. Mountainous terrain accounts for forty-four percent of the total area of this region. These mountain ranges, which exert great influence on Xinjiang's climate, frame two enormous basins-the Junggar and Tarim basins-and nurture numerous rivers and streams. To get a clear geographical picture of Xinjiang, one must first study the position of these mountain ranges, their geological history, structure and form, as well as the systems of glaciers there. Let us begin with the Tianshan Mountains. ~ In ancient times the Tianshan Mountain Range was known as the "Northern Mountains," "Snowy Mountains," "White Mountains" and "Shaded Mountains." One of the largest ranges in Asia, its grand and imposing peaks roll east-west for 1,700 kilometers, dividing Xinjiang into two parts. To the south is the Tarim Basin known as southern Xinjiang, while to the north lies the Junggar Basin or northern Xinjiang. These two regions separated by the great wall of the Tianshan Mountains, which are 250 to 300 kilometers wide, have very different geographical appearances and climates. The Tianshan Mountains comprise of three parallel ranges. The northern range includes the Alataw, Borohoro and Erenhaberga mountains; the central range is made up of the Wusun, Narat and Erbin mountains, and the southern range comprises of the Kok Shal, Kariktag, K6k Teke and Kora mountains. All of these are mammoth mountains. In between the mountains are large and small basins and
valleys, the best known being the IIi Valley, Yulduz Basin, Yanqi Basin, Turpan Basin and Hami Basin.
Tianshan originated as a folded mountain range during the Palaeozoic Era, which was later eroded and leveled in the Mesozoic Era. Then a violent tectonic movement in the Cenozoic Era pushed it up to a height of 4,000 to 5,000 meters above sea level, leaving the Tianshan Mountains we see today. Tianshan descends in height as it heads toward east, but nevertheless, snow-capped peaks range shoulder to shoulder across the land. The highest peak is Mount Tomiir towering 7,435 meters above sea level, a Chinese mountain-eering party successfully ascended the peak on July 25, 1977 for the first time. Standing east of Urumqi, the seat of government of Xinjiang, is' Mount Bogda, which has three peaks. Rising to 5,445 meters, the snow-clad highest peak pierces the sky and reflects the sun, looking like a door-god standing sentinel for Urumqi. To the east, the Barkol and Karlik mountains fall to gentle slopes with broad flat peaks, with most of the valleys below 2,500 meters above sea level. Tortuous routes leading to passes link northern and southern Xinjiang. In ancient times, army troops and merchant caravans often went through the Dabancheng Pass east of Urumqi and the Qijiaojing Pass north of Hami when they crossed the Tianshan Mountains. The Tianshan Mountain Range is the largest glacier area in China and its singular glacial scenery has long attracted scientists and explorers. A number of scientific explorations since 1949 have discovered more than 6,890 glaciers in the Tianshan Mountains, covering an area of more than 9,500 square kilometers, or sixteen percent of the total glacial area of China. The largest glacial area is to be found in the western section of the range. Totaling 7,490 square kilome-ters in area, accounting for three fourths of the total glacial area in the Tianshan Mountains, it covers the mountains of Erenhaberga, Borohoro, Kariktag and Hantenqri, The glacier at Nurqik on the southern side of Mount Hantengri is 59.5 kilometers long and extends into the territory of the Soviet Union in its lower reaches. It is known as Tianshan Glacier No.1. Sprawling around it are a dozen other glaciers, each measuring over ten kilometers long. These glaciers look like jade dragons flying over mountains and valleys, presenting a thousand shapes and hues. Numerous ice caves, ice wells and seracs on the surface of the glaciers create fascinating scenery. The Tianshan glaciers form the largest water reservoir in the Xinjiang region. In summer the sun melts the ice and snow, and water streams down to swell the rivers and irrigate the vast basins and oases in northern and southern Xinjiang. Facing the Southern Tianshan Mountain Range at a distance are the Kunlun and Karakorum mountain ranges rising from the Pamirs and running parallel to each other as they head east. The Karako-rum Mountain Range extends into northern Tibet and links up with the Gangdise Mountains, while the Kunlun Mountain Range follows the Xinjiang-Tibet border, reaching into Qinghai and Sichuan prov-inces. The Karakorum Mountains are marked by sheer cliffs and preci-pices, rising to a height of 5,000 to 6,000 meters above sea level. The highest peak is Mount Qogir soaring to a height of 8,611 meters, second only to Mount Everest, the highest peak in the world. Appearing like a pyramid of ice, awe-inspiring Mount Qogir com-mands a sea of peaks around. Although not as steep as the Karakorum Mountain Range, the Kunlun Mountain Range is bigger and longer, and is known as "the Backbone of Asia." The part which runs through Xinjiang measures 1,800 kilometers in length and 150 kilometers in width, with most ridges rising above 5,000 meters and a number of its western peaks reaching 6,000 or 7,000 meters. Among them are Mount Kongur (7,719 meters), Mount Konqurdobe (7,595 meters) and Mount Muztagata (7,546 meters), also known as the "Father of Glaciers."
.The Tianshan, Karakorum and Hindukush ranges meet in a huge mountainous mass to form the grand and magnificent Pamirs. The eastern part of the Pamirs occupies the southwestern tip of Xinjiang, rising to a height of 7,700 meters above sea level. Crouching on the top of the world, the Pamirs are known as the "Forefather of Ten Thousand Mountains." This part of the country was once a center of communications. With the Silk Road passing through this area, Chinese governments in the past set up sentry posts here to protect traffic on the road. Renowned travelers who passed through this area include the Buddhist monks FaXian of the Eastern Jin Dynasty (317-420 A.D.) and Xuan Zang of the Tang Dynasty (618-907 A.D.), and the Italian Marco Polo (1254-1324), who all wrote fascinating travelogues that amazed the world. The Pamirs region has been inhabited by the Tajik and Kirgiz nationalities for genera-tions, and after the founding of New China in 1949, the Taxkorgan Tajik Autonomous County was established here. Today the Sino-Pakistan Friendship Highway passes through the Pamirs while a number of international airliners fly overhead. Although the Pamirs, Karakorum and Kunlun mountains are lofty and massive ranges, they bring little rainfall. The Kunlun Mountains are particularly dry because the strength of the wet air current coming from the Atlantic is spent by the time it reaches here, while the monsoon blowing from India is blocked by the Himalayas and the Karakorum mountains. Consequently the area around the Pa-mirs, Karakorum and Kunlun mountains is one of the driest high-lands in Asia. These mountains have fewer glaciers than the Tian-shan Mountains and the area of glaciers on the Pamirs, Karakorum and Kunlun mountains within Xinjiang is estimated at 2,200, 3,200 and 8,700 square kilometers respectively. Most of the glaciers in the Kunlun Mountain Range lie in its western part. The Altai Mountains loom in the northeastern part of Xinjiang, forming the border between China, Mongolia and the Soviet Union. The section of the range within China runs 400 kilometers from northwest to southeast. Not very high at 3,000 meters above sea level, it has gentle slopes. The highest peak rising to 4,374 meters is Mount Friendship, straddling the Sino-Soviet border. Cold and wet air currents coming from the west bring plentiful rainfall to the Altai Mountains, giving this region dense forests and luxuriant grasslands, so that this part of the country looks very different from other parts of Xinjiang. Many rivers rise in the Altai Mountains, which have rich water resources. They include the Haba River, Burqin River, Kelan River, Ertix River, Daqing River and Xiaoqing River. Flowing down the slopes to the south, theyjoin to form two large rivers-the Ertix River and the Ulungur River, flowing northwesterly. Fish abound in the rivers and lakes in this part of Xinjiang, and the river banks make fertile farmland and pastureland. Rich mineral deposits have been found in the Altai Mountains, including gold, nonferrous metals and rare metals. Mining has been most successful with splendid results. The glacial area in the Altai Mountains is quite small because most areas are below the snow line. A total of 420 glaciers have been found, totaling only 293 square kilometers. Most of the glaciers lie on the southern slopes in the upper reaches of the Burqin River, the largest of which is the Kanas Glacier, twelve kilometers long, in . the upper reaches of the Kanas River. Its melted ice and snow swell the Kanas River all the year round. The river valley is clad with dense forests of pine, fir and birch and is rico in wildlife.